Solar Terrestrial Activity Report

Activity chart

Last major update issued on February 26, 2024 at 06:30 UT. Active region table to be updated

Charts (* = updated daily) Data and archive
  Solar wind (*) Solar and geomagnetic data - last month (*)
  Electron fluence (*) Archived daily reports and monthly data since 2003.01 (February 4, 2024)
Solar cycle Solar cycles 23-25 (February 1, 2024) Historical solar and geomagnetic data charts 1954-2006 (April 5, 2007)
  Cycle 24-25 progress (February 1, 2024) Noon SDO sunspot count 1K image / 4K (*)
  Solar cycles 1-24 (July 1, 2020) POES auroral activity level [October 2009 - December 2012]
  Comparison of cycles 21-25 (February 1, 2024) 3rd SSN Workshop, Tucson, 2013
  Comparison of cycles 12-14, 16, 24-25 (February 1, 2024) 4th SSN Workshop, Locarno, 2014
  Solar polar fields vs. solar cycles (January  3, 2024) Cycle 25 spots (final update December 25, 2019)
  Solar cycles 24-25 transition using 365d smoothing Research: Solar Cycle 25 Started on November 17, 2019 with 365 Days Smoothing
Calculating the Strength of Solar Cycle 25 Using 365-day Smoothing

Recent activity

The geomagnetic field was quiet to unsettled on February 25 under the influence of CME effects during the first half of the day, then with effects from CH1202 becoming dominant towards the end of the day. Solar wind speed at SOHO ranged between 351 and 577 km/sec. The high latitude magnetometer at Andenes recorded quiet to unsettled levels. The above 10 MeV proton flux was at background levels at the end of the day.

Solar flux density measured at 20h UT on 2.8 GHz was 180.8 - increasing 40.5 over the previous solar rotation. (Centered 1 year average SF at 1 AU - 183 days ago: 157.37. In comparison SC24 peaked on June 28, 2014 at 145.50. Current SC25 peak: 158.71 on June 27, 2023). The Potsdam WDC planetary A index was 11 (STAR Ap - based on the mean of three hour interval ap indices: 11.3). Three hour interval K indices: 23223133 (planetary), 23323333 (Boulder), 33223122 (Andenes).

The background x-ray flux is at the class C1 level (GOES 16).

At the time of counting spots (see image time), spots were observed in 11 active regions using 2K resolution (SN: 251) and in 8 active regions using 1K resolution (SN: 159) SDO/HMI images.

Region 13586 [N27W69] was quiet and stable.
Region 13590 [N18W14] developed as the huge leader penumbra extended further, slight decay was observed in the trialing spot section. The leader penumbra has several magnetic delta structures and an X class flare, maybe even an X10+ flare, is possible. C1 flares: C1.8 @ 13:30, C1.9 @ 13:42, C1.6 @ 16:12 UT
Region 13591 [S36E47] was mostly quiet and stable.
Region 13592 [S13E43] decayed slowly and quietly.
Region 13594 [N04E41] decayed slowly and quietly.
New region 13595 [N19E46] emerged on February 23 and was numbered by SWPC 2 days later as the region continued to develop slowly.

Spotted regions not observed (or interpreted differently) by SWPC/USAF:
S9445 [S20W05] was quiet and stable.
S9452 [S11E33] was quiet and stable.
S9453 [S15E60] decayed slowly and quietly.
New region S9457 [N22E32] emerged with tiny spots.
New region S9458 [N17E77] rotated into view with several spots.

C2+ flares:

Magnitude Peak time (UT) Location Source Recorded by Comment
C2.4 00:50   13590 GOES16  
C2.0 01:39   13590 GOES16  
C2.0 05:16   13595 GOES16  
C2.3 05:55   13595 GOES16  
C4.2 06:58   13590 GOES16  
C2.5 09:10   13590 GOES16  
C2.9 09:55   13591 GOES16  
C3.1 11:01   13590 GOES16  
M2.1/1N 17:22   13590 GOESA16  
C4.1 18:39   13590 GOES16  
C2.3 20:27   13591 GOES16  
C2.5 21:36   13590 GOES16  
C3.5 21:58   13590 GOES16  

Coronal mass ejections (CMEs)

February 23-25: No obviously Earth directed CMEs were observed.

Coronal holes

[Coronal hole history (since October 2002)]
[Compare today's report to the situation one solar rotation ago: 28 days ago 27 days ago 26 days ago]

A recurrent southern hemisphere coronal hole (CH1202) was in an Earth facing position on February 21-24.

Propagation

Long distance low and medium frequency (below 2 MHz) propagation along paths north of due west over upper middle and high latitudes is poor to fair. Propagation on long distance northeast-southwest paths is poor.

Forecast

The geomagnetic field is expected to be quiet to unsettled on February 26-27 due to effects from CH1202 and quiet on February 28.

Coronal holes (1) Coronal mass ejections (2) M and X class flares (3)
     

1) Effects from a coronal hole could reach Earth within the next 5 days. When the high speed stream has arrived the color changes to green.
2) Effects from a CME are likely to be observed at Earth within 96 hours.
3) There is a possibility of either M or X class flares within the next 48 hours.

Green: 0-30% probability, Yellow: 30-70% probability, Red: 70-100% probability.

Active solar regions


(Click on image for 2K resolution). 4K resolution. Compare to the previous day's image.
0.5K image

When available the active region map has a coronal hole polarity overlay where red (pink) is negative and blue is positive.

Data for all officially numbered solar regions according to the Solar Region Summary provided by NOAA/SWPC, all other regions are numbered sequentially as they emerge using the STAR spot number. Comments are my own, as is the STAR spot count (spots observed at or inside a few hours before midnight) and data for regions not numbered by SWPC or where SWPC has observed no spots. SWPC active region numbers in the table below and in the active region map above are the historic SWPC/USAF numbers. SWPC data considered to be not sufficiently precise (location, area, classification) are colored red.

Active region SWPC date numbered
STAR detected
Spot count Location at midnight Area Classification SDO / HMI 4K continuum
image with magnetic polarity overlays
Comment
SWPC/
USAF
Magnetic
(SDO)
SWPC STAR Current Previous
2K 1K
13587 2024.02.13
2024.02.15
      S20W86           location: S21W79
13586 2024.02.13
2024.02.15
1 1 1 N27W58 0080 HSX HSX

area: 0120

location: N27W56

S9432 2024.02.17       S21W49            
13590 2024.02.18
2024.02.18
45 107 55 N18W01 1400 FKC FKC beta-gamma-delta

area: 1660

S9438 2024.02.19       N13W41 0010        
S9439 2024.02.19       S27W59            
S9441 2024.02.20       N02W49            
S9444 2024.02.21       S19W32            
S9445 2024.02.21   5 1 S20E17 0012   BXO  
13593 2024.02.22
2024.02.23
      S07W84         location: S06W80
13591 2024.02.22
2024.02.23
1 2 2 S36E60 0040 HSX CSO location: S36E59

area: 0120

13592 2024.02.22
2024.02.23
5 13 7 S12E58 0140 DSO DAO location: S13E57

area: 0170

13594 2024.02.22
2024.02.23
4 9 5 N05E55 0050 CAO DAO location: N04E55

are: 0080

S9450 2024.02.22       N17W21            
S9451 2024.02.23   6 3 N20E58 0020   BXO  
S9452 2024.02.23   3 1 S08E46 0010   CRO  
S9453 2024.02.24   1 1 S15E73 0006   HRX    
S9454 2024.02.24   1   N08E65 0002   AXX    
S9455 2024.02.24   1   N07W09 0003   AXX    
S9456 2024.02.24   2   S16W50 0005   AXX    
Total spot count: 56 151 76  
Sunspot number: 106 271 166  (total spot count + 10 * number of spotted regions)
Weighted SN: 86 187 112  (Sum of total spot count + classification weighting for each AR. Classification weighting: X=0, R=3, A/S=5, H/K=10)
Relative sunspot number (Wolf number): 117 149 133  

Monthly solar cycle data

Month Average solar flux International sunspot number
(WDC-SILSO)
Smoothed sunspot number (4) Average ap
(3)
Measured 1 AU
2014.02 170.3
(cycle peak)
166.3 146.1 (SC24 peak) 110.5 10.70
2014.04 143.9 144.8 112.5 116.4 (SC24 solar max) 7.88
2017.09 91.3 92.3 43.6 18.2 (-1.3) 18.22
(SC24 peak)
2019.11 70.2 68.7 0.5 2.0 (-0.6)
(Solar minimum using 365d smoothing:
November 17, 2019)
4.19
2019.12 70.8 68.6 1.6 1.8 (-0.2)
(ISN 13 months smoothed
solar minimum)
3.22
2022.07 125.4 129.5 91.4 86.7 (+5.6) 9.51
2022.08 114.2 117.1 74.6 92.6 (+5.9) 10.92
2022.09 135.1 136.5 96.0 96.5 (+3.9) 12.18
2022.10 133.5 132.7 95.5 98.9 (+2.4) 11.16
2022.11 123.4 120.7 80.5 101.2 (+2.3) 9.33
2022.12 147.9 143.4 112.8 106.7 (+5.5) 10.99
2023.01 182.4 176.6 144.4 113.3 (+6.6) 8.73
2023.02 167.2 163.2 111.3 117.8 (+3.5) 14.48
(current
SC25 peak)
2023.03 157.2 155.6 123.3 121.1 (+3.3) 14.42
2023.04 145.4 146.4 97.6 122.9 (+1.8) 13.40
2023.05 155.6 159.2 137.4 124.1 (+1.2) 10.67
2023.06 161.7 166.8 160.5 125.2 (+1.1)
(SC25 solar max candidate)
8.95
2023.07  176.4 182.2 160.0 124.3 (-0.9) 8.15
2023.08  153.7 157.6 114.8 (123.4 projected, -0.9) 7.19
2023.09  154.4 156.0 134.2 (123.1 projected, -0.3) 14.26
2023.10  142.8 141.9 99.4 (123.9 projected, +0.8) 8.16
2023.11 153.5 150.2 105.4 (123.9 projected, +0.0) 12.20
2023.12 151.1 146.4 114.2 (120.5 projected, -3.4) 9.60
2024.01 164.6 159.3 123.0 (117.1 projected, -3.3) 5.46
2024.02 172.9 (1)   96.8 (2A) / 117.0 (2B) / 134.0 (2C) (116.3 projected, -0.8) (4.8)
2024.03       (115.8 projected, -0.5)  
2024.04       (115.7 projected, -0.1)  
2024.05       (117.0 projected, +1.3)  
2024.06       (116.2 projected, -0.8)  
2024.07       (114.5 projected, -1.7)  
2024.08       (113.1 projected, -1.4)  

1) Running average based on the daily 20:00 UTC observed solar flux value at 2800 MHz and any corrections applied to that measurement.
2A) Current impact on the monthly sunspot number based on the Boulder (NOAA/SWPC) sunspot number (accumulated daily sunspots / month days).
2B) Boulder SN current month average to date.
2C) STAR SDO 1K Wolf number 30 day average.
3) Running average based on the quicklook and definitive Potsdam WDC ap indices. Values in red are based on the definitive international GFZ Potsdam WDC ap indices.
4) Source: WDC-SILSO, Royal Observatory Of Belgium, Brussels

Solar cycles 24-25

Smoothed SF and sunspot numbers

Update on the progress of solar cycle 25 as of February 11, 2024

The relatively high solar activity during the first weeks of 2024 has changed the outlook regarding solar max. The first peak in June 2023 currently has a less than 10% probability of being the actual solar max. The next candidate month is October 2023 (October 8-11 if zooming in on a specific date). The likelihood of October 2023 surpassing June 2023 is at least 50%. It is still likely that solar max will be sometime between October 2023 and March 2025.

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This report has been prepared by Jan Alvestad. It is based on the analysis of data from whatever sources are available at the time the report is prepared. All time references are to Universal Time. Comments and suggestions are always welcome.

SDO images are courtesy of NASA/SDO and the AIA, EVE, and HMI science teams.