Last major update issued on July 1, 2011 at 05:05 UTC.
[Solar and geomagnetic data - last month (updated
[Solar wind and electron fluence charts (updated daily)
[Solar cycles 21-24 (last update June 1, 2011)]
[Solar cycles 1-20]
[Graphical comparison of cycles 21, 22, 23 and 24 (last update June 1, 2011)]
[Graphical comparison of cycles 10, 12, 13, 14, 16 and 24 (last update June 1, 2011)]
[Historical solar and geomagnetic data charts 1954-2006 (last update April 5, 2007)]
[Archived reports since January 2003 (last update June 1, 2011)]
[POES auroral activity level charts since October
2009 - updated June 30, 2011]
Annotated geomagnetic activity charts - Carrington rotation 2109 [April-May 2011] - 2110 [May-June 2011]
[Solar polar fields vs solar cycles - updated June 27, 2011]
The geomagnetic field was quiet to unsettled on June 30. Solar wind speed ranged between 285 and 355 km/s. ACE data indicate that the leading part of a high speed stream from CH460 arrived at 16h UTC.
Solar flux measured at 20h UTC on 2.8 GHz was 89.2 (decreasing 17.9 over the last solar rotation). The planetary A index was 6 (STAR Ap - based on the mean of three hour interval ap indices: 6.3). Three hour interval K indices: 22102232 (planetary), 12101211 (Boulder).
The background x-ray flux is at the class B1 level.
At midnight UTC the visible solar disk had 6 spotted regions.
Region 11242 developed early in the day, then began to decay.
Region 11243 developed slowly and was quiet. C flares are possible.
Spotted regions not numbered by NOAA/SWPC:
[S1087] emerged in the northeast quadrant on June 27. The region developed significantly on June 30 and has mixed polarities. Location at midnight: N13E02
[S1088] reemerged with a few tiny spots on June 30. Location at midnight: S27W06
[S1090] emerged at the northeast limb on June 29. Location at midnight: N15E62
[S1092] emerged in the southeast quadrant on June 30. Location at midnight: S23E19
Interesting bipolar regions with no spots emerged at high latitudes (N78 and S60) during the day.
June 28-30: No obviously earth directed CMEs were observed.
Coronal hole history (since late October
Compare today's report to the situation one solar rotation ago: 28 days ago 27 days ago 26 days ago
A recurrent coronal hole (CH460) in the northern hemisphere was in an Earth facing position on June 27-28. A small coronal hole (CH461) in the northern hemisphere was in an Earth facing position on June 30, however, CH461 has decayed over the last days and closed on June 30. A trans equatorial coronal hole (CH462) could become Earth facing on July 1-2.
The above coronal hole map is based on a new method where coronal holes are detected automatically. The method may need some fine tuning, however, it has significant advantages over detecting coronal holes manually. The main improvement is the ability to detect coronal holes at and just beyond the solar limbs. Early results using this method for SDO images over a span of several weeks indicate a good match between coronal holes observed over the visible disk and their extent and position at the east and west limbs. Note that the polar coronal holes are easily detected using the new method, the extent and intensity of both holes are consistent with other data sources.
Long distance low and medium frequency (below 2 MHz) propagation along paths north of due west over high and upper middle latitudes is poor. Propagation on long distance northeast-southwest paths is poor to fair.
The geomagnetic field is expected to be quiet to active on July 1 with a chance of minor storm intervals due to effects from CH460. Quiet to unsettled is likely on July 2-3.
|Coronal holes (1)||Coronal mass ejections (2)||M and X class flares (3)|
1) Effects from a coronal hole could reach Earth within the
next 5 days. When the high speed stream has arrived the color changes to
2) Effects from a CME are likely to be observed at Earth within 96 hours.
3) There is a possibility of either M or X class flares within the next 48 hours.
Green: 0-20% probability, Yellow: 20-60% probability, Red: 60-100% probability.
(Click on image for higher resolution image) Compare to the previous day's image
When available the active region map has a coronal hole polarity overlay where red (pink) is negative and blue (blue-green) is positive.
Data for all numbered solar regions according to the Solar Region Summary provided by NOAA/SWPC. Comments are my own, as is the STAR spot count (spots observed at or inside a few hours before midnight) and data for regions not numbered by SWPC or where SWPC has observed no spots. SWPC active region numbers in the table below and in the active region map above are the historic SWPC/USAF numbers.
|Active region||Date numbered
|Spot count||Location at midnight||Area||Classification||SDO / HMI 4K continuum
image with polarity overlay
northwestern spots could be separate region
|Total spot count:||14||58|
|Month||Average measured solar flux||International sunspot number (SIDC)||Smoothed sunspot number||Average ap
|2008.07||65.7 (SF minimum)||0.5||2.8 (-0.4)|
|2010.02||84.7||18.8||10.6 (+1.3)||4.15 / 4.61|
|2010.03||83.4||15.4||12.3 (+1.7)||4.58 / 4.65|
|2010.04||75.9||8.0||14.0 (+1.7)||10.22 / 10.24|
|2010.05||73.8||8.7||15.5 (+1.5)||9.18 / 8.15|
|2010.06||72.5||13.6||16.4 (+0.9)||8.17 / 6.85|
|2010.07||79.8||16.1||16.7 (+0.3)||6.31 / 5.15|
|2010.08||79.2||19.6||17.4 (+0.7)||8.49 / 7.77|
|2010.09||81.1||25.2||19.6 (+2.2)||5.33 / 5.45|
|2010.10||81.6||23.5||23.2 (+3.6)||6.07 / 6.27|
|2010.11||82.5||21.5||26.5 (+3.3)||4.80 / 5.50|
|2010.12||84.2||14.4||(29.4 predicted, +2.9)||3.41 / 4.35|
|2011.01||83.6||19.1||(32.6 predicted, +3.2)||4.32 / 5.51|
|2011.02||94.6||29.4||(35.2 predicted, +2.6)||5.41 / 6.44|
|2011.03||115.0||56.2||(37.5 predicted, +2.3)||7.79|
|2011.04||112.6||54.4||(40.4 predicted, +2.9)||9.71|
|2011.05||95.8||41.6||(43.7 predicted, +3.3)||9.18|
|2011.06||95.8 (1)||55.6 (2A/2B)||(47.4 predicted, +3.7)||(8.96)|
1) Running average based on the daily 20:00 UTC observed solar flux value at
2A) Current impact on the monthly sunspot number based on the Boulder (NOAA/SWPC) sunspot number (accumulated daily sunspots / month days). The official SIDC international sunspot number is typically 30-50% lower. 2B) Month average to date.
3) Running average based on the preliminary daily SWPC ap indices. Values in red are based on the official NGDC ap indices.
This report has been prepared by Jan Alvestad. It is based on analysis of data from whatever sources are available at the time the report is prepared. All time references are to the UTC day. Comments and suggestions are always welcome.
SDO images are courtesy of NASA/SDO and the AIA, EVE, and HMI science teams.