Last major update issued on January 19, 2014 at 05:05 UTC.
[Solar and geomagnetic data - last month (updated
[Solar wind and electron fluence charts (updated daily)]
[Solar cycles 23-24 (last update January 1, 2014)] [Cycle 24 progress (last update January 1, 2014) ]
[Solar cycles 1-20]
[Graphical comparison of cycles 21, 22, 23 and 24 (last update January 1, 2014)]
[Graphical comparison of cycles 10, 12, 13, 14, 16 and 24 (last update January 1, 2014)]
[Historical solar and geomagnetic data charts 1954-2006 (last update April 5, 2007)]
[Archived reports since January 2003 (last update January 1, 2014)]
[POES auroral activity level since October
2009 - updated January 26, 2013]
[Solar polar fields vs solar cycles - updated January 11, 2014]
[Presentation 3rd SSN Workshop, Tucson, 2013 (pdf)]
The geomagnetic field was very quiet on January 18. Solar wind speed at SOHO ranged between 276 and 333 km/s.
Solar flux at 20h UTC on 2.8 GHz was 129.4 (decreasing 8.5 over the last solar rotation). The 90 day 10.7 flux at 1 AU was 148.3. The Potsdam WDC planetary A index was 1 (STAR Ap - based on the mean of three hour interval ap indices: 1.0). Three hour interval K indices: 10000010 (planetary), 00002220 (Boulder).
The background x-ray flux is at the class B4 level.
At the time of counting spots (see image time) spots were observed in 17 active regions in 2K resolution (SN: 239) and 16 active regions in 1K resolution (SN: 197) SDO images on the visible solar disk.
Region 11949 [S16W58] was quiet and stable.
Region 11952 [S32W16] was quiet and stable.
Region 11953 [S17W80] decayed slowly and quietly.
Region 11954 [N07W51] decayed slowly and quietly.
Region 11955 [S13E37] was quiet and stable.
Region 11957 [N12E35] developed slowly and could produce C flares.
Region 11958 [S08E65] was quiet and stable.
New region 11959 [S24E71] rotated into view on January 17 and was numbered the next day by SWPC. The region has polarity intermixing. C5+ flare: C6.0 at 12:04 UTC
New region 11960 [S16E76] rotated partly into view on January 17 and revealed only one large spot when coming fully into view on January 18.
Spotted regions not numbered (or interpreted differently) by SWPC:
S3011 [S12W42] was quiet and stable.
S3029 [S25E52] reemerged with penumbra spots.
S3031 [S37E31] was quiet and stable.
New region S3036 [N11E25] emerged with a penumba spot.
New region S3038 [S02E75] emerged with a penumbra spot.
New region S3039 [S17E43] was split off from AR 11955.
New region S3040 [S18E65] emerged with a penumbra spot.
New region S3041 [S06W04] emerged with penumbra spots.
January 16-18: No obviously Earth directed CMEs were observed in LASCO and STEREO imagery.
Coronal hole history (since October
Compare today's report to the situation one solar rotation ago: 28 days ago 27 days ago 26 days ago
A northern hemisphere coronal hole (CH600) is probably too far to the north to cause geomagnetic effects, it rotated across the central meridian on January 18.
Long distance low and medium frequency (below 2 MHz) propagation along paths north of due west over upper middle latitudes is fair. Propagation on long distance northeast-southwest paths is poor.
The geomagnetic field is expected to be quiet on January 19-20. On January 21 and 22 there is a minor chance of weak coronal hole effects from CH600, a few unsettled intervals are possible.
|Coronal holes (1)||Coronal mass ejection (2)||M and X class flares (3)|
1) Effects from a coronal hole could reach Earth within the
next 5 days. When the high speed stream has arrived the color changes to
2) Effects from a CME are likely to be observed at Earth within 96 hours.
3) There is a possibility of either M or X class flares within the next 48 hours.
Green: 0-20% probability, Yellow: 20-60% probability, Red: 60-100% probability.
(Click on image for 2K resolution) Compare to the previous day's image. 0.5K image
When available the active region map has a coronal hole polarity overlay where red (pink) is negative and blue is positive.
Data for all numbered solar regions according to the Solar Region Summary provided by NOAA/SWPC. Comments are my own, as is the STAR spot count (spots observed at or inside a few hours before midnight) and data for regions not numbered by SWPC or where SWPC has observed no spots. SWPC active region numbers in the table below and in the active region map above are the historic SWPC/USAF numbers.
|Active region||Date numbered
|Spot count||Location at midnight||Area||Classification||SDO / HMI 4K continuum
image with magnetic polarity overlay
|Total spot count:||24||69||37|
|Sunspot number:||114||239||197||(total spot count + 10 * number of spotted regions)|
|Weighted SN:||60||115||83||(Sum of total spot count + classification weighting for each AR. Classification weighting: X=0, R=3, A/S=5, H/K=10)|
|Relative sunspot number (Wolf number):||68||84||108||k * (sunspot number). k = 0.6 for SWPC, k = 0.35 for STAR SDO 2K, k = 0.55 for STAR SDO 1K|
|Month||Average measured solar flux||International sunspot number (SIDC)||Smoothed sunspot number||Average ap
|2011.11||153.5 (cycle peak)||96.7 (cycle peak)||61.1 (+1.2)||5.55|
possible cycle 24 max
|2013.07||115.5||57.0||(65.4 projected, +2.8)||9.47|
|2013.08||114.6||66.0||(67.8 projected, +2.4)||8.27|
|2013.09||102.6||36.9||(70.1 projected, +2.3)||5.23|
|2013.10||132.1||85.6||(70.0 projected, -0.1)||7.71|
|2013.11||148.3||77.6||(68.1 projected, -1.9)||5.68|
|2013.12||147.7||90.3||(67.4 projected, -0.7)||4.68|
|2014.01||166.6 (1)||80.0 (2A) / 137.7 (2B) / 100.3 (2C)||(67.6 projected, +0.2)||(6.1)|
1) Running average based on the daily 20:00 UTC observed solar flux value at
2A) Current impact on the monthly sunspot number based on the Boulder (NOAA/SWPC) sunspot number (accumulated daily sunspots / month days). The official SIDC international sunspot number is typically 30-50% lower. 2B) Boulder SN current month average to date. 2C) STAR SDO 1K Wolf number 30 day average.
3) Running average based on the quicklook and definitive Potsdam WDC ap indices. Values in red are based on the definitive international Potsdam WDC ap indices.
This report has been prepared by Jan Alvestad. It is based on the analysis of data from whatever sources are available at the time the report is prepared. All time references are to the UTC day. Comments and suggestions are always welcome.
SDO images are courtesy of NASA/SDO and the AIA, EVE, and HMI science teams.