Last major update issued on March 29, 2014 at 08:40 UTC.
[Solar and geomagnetic data - last month (updated
[Solar wind and electron fluence charts (updated daily)]
[Solar cycles 23-24 (last update March 1, 2014)] [Cycle 24 progress (last update March 1, 2014) ]
[Solar cycles 1-20]
[Graphical comparison of cycles 21, 22, 23 and 24 (last update March 1, 2014)]
[Graphical comparison of cycles 10, 12, 13, 14, 16 and 24 (last update March 1, 2014)]
[Historical solar and geomagnetic data charts 1954-2006 (last update April 5, 2007)]
[Archived reports since January 2003 (last update March 1, 2014)]
[POES auroral activity level since October
2009 - updated January 26, 2013]
[Solar polar fields vs solar cycles - updated March 16, 2014]
[Presentation 3rd SSN Workshop, Tucson, 2013 (pdf)]
The geomagnetic field was quiet to unsettled on March 28. Solar wind speed at SOHO ranged between 400 and 511 km/s.
Solar flux at 20h UTC on 2.8 GHz was 146.4 (decreasing 18.2 over the last solar rotation). The 90 day 10.7 flux at 1 AU was 155.0 (new high for cycle 24). The Potsdam WDC planetary A index was 6 (STAR Ap - based on the mean of three hour interval ap indices: 5.9). Three hour interval K indices: 11112123 (planetary), 11113333 (Boulder).
The background x-ray flux is at the class B7 level.
At the time of counting spots (see image time), spots were observed in 17 active regions in 2K resolution (SN: 344) and 16 active regions in 1K resolution (SN: 250) SDO images on the visible solar disk.
Region 12010 [S13W77] decayed slowly and quietly.
Region 12014 [S13W48] was quiet and stable.
Region 12017 [N10W22] developed in the leading spot section with a magnetic delta structure forming in the northern part of the largest penumbra. The delta disintegrated after the 2 M flares. C5+ flares: impulsive M2.0 at 19:18, M2.6 at 23:51 UTC. Both flares were accompanied by type II radio sweeps and a CME off the northwest limb.
Region 12018 [N04W15] decayed slowly and quietly.
Region 12020 [S11E07] decayed slowly and quietly.
New region 12021 [S12E49] emerged with several spots.
New region 12022 [N17E65] rotated into view on March 27 and was numbered by SWPC the next day.
Spotted regions not numbered (or interpreted differently) by SWPC:
S3248 [S03W35] decayed slowly and quietly.
S3271 [S19W00] developed early in the day, then decayed slowly.
S3272 [N12E05] was quiet and stable.
New region S3274 [S30W68] emerged early in the day with several spots with umbra, then decayed and had only penumbra spots left by the end of the day.
New region S3275 [N18E34] emerged with a few spots.
New region S3276 [S11E41] emerged with penumbra spots in an old plage region.
New region S3277 [S25E28] emerged with penumbra spots.
New region S3278 [S17E20] emerged with penumbra spots.
New region S3279 [S14W65] emerged with several spots.
New region S3280 [N09E26] emerged with a penumbra spot.
A full halo CME was observed after 18h UTC in LASCO imagery, its source was a backsided southern hemisphere active region.
March 26-28: No obviously Earth directed CMEs were observed in LASCO and STEREO imagery.
Coronal hole history (since October
Compare today's report to the situation one solar rotation ago: 28 days ago 27 days ago 26 days ago
A trans equatorial coronal hole (CH609) rotated into an Earth facing position on March 28-29.
Long distance low and medium frequency (below 2 MHz) propagation along paths north of due west over upper middle latitudes is poor. Propagation on long distance northeast-southwest paths is poor.
The geomagnetic field is expected to be quiet on March 29-30. On March 31 and April 1 there's a chance of unsettled intervals due to coronal hole effects.
|Coronal holes (1)||Coronal mass ejection (2)||M and X class flares (3)|
1) Effects from a coronal hole could reach Earth within the
next 5 days. When the high speed stream has arrived the color changes to
2) Effects from a CME are likely to be observed at Earth within 96 hours.
3) There is a possibility of either M or X class flares within the next 48 hours.
Green: 0-30% probability, Yellow: 30-70% probability, Red: 70-100% probability.
(Click on image for 2K resolution) Compare to the previous day's image. 0.5K image
When available the active region map has a coronal hole polarity overlay where red (pink) is negative and blue is positive.
Data for all numbered solar regions according to the Solar Region Summary provided by NOAA/SWPC. Comments are my own, as is the STAR spot count (spots observed at or inside a few hours before midnight) and data for regions not numbered by SWPC or where SWPC has observed no spots. SWPC active region numbers in the table below and in the active region map above are the historic SWPC/USAF numbers.
|Active region||Date numbered
|Spot count||Location at midnight||Area||Classification||SDO / HMI 4K continuum
image with magnetic polarity overlay
SWPC is probably counting the spots of AR S3274, 10 degrees further 10 east
|Total spot count:||65||174||90|
|Sunspot number:||135||344||250||(total spot count + 10 * number of spotted regions)|
|Weighted SN:||101||204||120||(Sum of total spot count + classification weighting for each AR. Classification weighting: X=0, R=3, A/S=5, H/K=10)|
|Relative sunspot number (Wolf number):||81||120||138||k * (sunspot number). k = 0.6 for SWPC, k = 0.35 for MSN 2K, k = 0.55 for MSN 1K (MSN=Magnetic Sunspot Number)|
|Month||Average solar flux||International sunspot number
|Smoothed sunspot number||Average ap
|2013.09||102.6||103.7||36.9||(72.8 projected, +3.8)||5.23|
|2013.10||132.1||131.2||85.6||(73.8 projected, +1.0)||7.71|
|2013.11||148.3||145.1||77.6||(72.7 projected, -1.1)||5.68|
|2013.12||147.7||143.1||90.3||(71.6 projected, -1.1)||4.68|
|2014.01||157.4||152.4||82.0||(71.6 projected, 0.0)||5.44|
|166.3||102.8 (cycle peak)||(70.9 projected, -0.7)||10.70|
|2014.03||150.1 (1)||128.3 (2A) / 142.0 (2B) / 116.9 (2C)||(71.0 projected, +0.1)||(4.9)|
1) Running average based on the daily 20:00 UTC observed solar flux value at
2A) Current impact on the monthly sunspot number based on the Boulder (NOAA/SWPC) sunspot number (accumulated daily sunspots / month days). The official WDC-SILSO international sunspot number is typically 30-50% lower. 2B) Boulder SN current month average to date. 2C) STAR SDO 1K Wolf number 30 day average.
3) Running average based on the quicklook and definitive Potsdam WDC ap indices. Values in red are based on the definitive international GFZ Potsdam WDC ap indices.
This report has been prepared by Jan Alvestad. It is based on the analysis of data from whatever sources are available at the time the report is prepared. All time references are to the UTC day. Comments and suggestions are always welcome.
SDO images are courtesy of NASA/SDO and the AIA, EVE, and HMI science teams.