|Charts (* = updated daily)||Data and archive|
|Solar wind (*)||Solar and geomagnetic data - last month (*)|
|Electron fluence (*)||Archived daily reports and monthly data since 2003.01 (December 1, 2021)|
|Solar cycle||Solar cycles 23-25 (December 1, 2021)||Historical solar and geomagnetic data charts 1954-2006 (April 5, 2007)|
|Cycle 24-25 progress (December 1, 2021)||Noon SDO sunspot count 1K image / 4K (*)|
|Solar cycles 1-24 (June 1, 2020)||POES auroral activity level October 2009 - December 2012]|
|Comparison of cycles 21-25 (December 1, 2021)||3rd SSN Workshop, Tucson, 2013|
|Comparison of cycles 12-14, 16, 24-25 (December 1, 2021)||4th SSN Workshop, Locarno, 2014|
|Solar polar fields vs. solar cycles (August 22, 2021)||Cycle 25 spots (final update December 25, 2019)|
|Solar cycles 24-25 transition using 365d smoothing||Research: Solar Cycle 25 Started on November 17, 2019 with 365 Days Smoothing|
The geomagnetic field was quiet to active on December 21 under the influence of a high speed stream from CH1049. The high latitude magnetometer at Andenes recorded quiet to minor storm levels.
Solar flux density measured at 20h UT on 2.8 GHz was 136.6 - increasing 53.2 over the previous solar rotation. (Centered 1 year average SF at 1 AU - 183 days ago: 80.83). The Potsdam WDC planetary A index was 10 (STAR Ap - based on the mean of three hour interval ap indices: 9.6). Three hour interval K indices: 42212231 (planetary), 32222332 (Boulder), 53212151 (Andenes).
The background x-ray flux is at the class C1 level (GOES 16).
At the time of counting spots (see image time), spots were observed in 15 active regions using 2K resolution (SN: 309) and in 13 active regions using 1K resolution (SN: 209) SDO/HMI images.
Region 12907 [S20W38] developed further and was
mostly quiet. M class flares are possible.
Region 12908 [S21W24] developed as new flux emerged. The region is unstable and could produce further M class events. C1 flares: C1.0 @ 13:52 UT.
Region 12909 [S20W11] was mostly quiet and stable.
Region 12910 [N15W77] decayed slowly and quietly.
Region 12911 [N20E02] was quiet and stable.
Region 12912 [S11E40] developed slowly and was quiet.
Region 12913 [S28E19] decayed slowly and quietly.
New region 12914 [S17E22] emerged on December 18 and was numbered by SWPC 3 days later as the region began to decay.
New region 12915 [N17E38] rotated into view on December 18 with SWPC numbering the region 3 days later. The region developed slowly on December 21.
New region 12916 [S17E80] rotated partly into view with a leading large spot. C and M class flares are possible.
Spotted regions not observed (or interpreted
differently) by SWPC:
S7239 [S17W25] did not change significantly and could produce C flares. SWPC includes these spots in AR 12908.
New region S7252 [N18E48] emerged with tiny spots.
New region S7253 [N24E60] emerged with tiny spots.
New region S7254 [N20E65] emerged with tiny spots.
New region S7255 [S27E43] emerged with tiny spots.
|Magnitude||Peak time (UT)||Location||AR||Recorded by||Comment|
|C4.9||19:23||S20W08||12909||GOES16||EIT wave. CME?|
December 19, 21: No obviously Earth directed CMEs
were observed in available LASCO imagery.
December 20: A faint halo CME was observed after the M1.8 LDE in AR 12908.
[Coronal hole history (since October 2002)]
[Compare today's report to the situation one solar rotation ago: 28 days ago 27 days ago 26 days ago]
A trans equatorial coronal hole (CH1049) rotated across the central meridian on December 17-18.
Long distance low and medium frequency (below 2 MHz) propagation along paths north of due west over upper middle and high latitudes is poor. Propagation on long distance northeast-southwest paths is poor to fair.
The geomagnetic field is expected to be quiet to unsettled on December 22 due to effects from CH1049 and quiet during the first half of December 23. A CME could reach Earth after noon on December 23 and cause unsettled to minor storm conditions that day and on December 24.
|Coronal holes (1)||Coronal mass ejection (2)||M and X class flares (3)|
1) Effects from a coronal hole
could reach Earth within the next 5 days. When the high speed
stream has arrived the color changes to green.
2) Effects from a CME are likely to be observed at Earth within 96 hours.
3) There is a possibility of either M or X class flares within the next 48 hours.
Green: 0-30% probability, Yellow: 30-70% probability, Red: 70-100% probability.
(Click on image for 2K resolution). 4K resolution. Compare to the previous day's image. 0.5K image
When available the active region map has a coronal hole polarity overlay where red (pink) is negative and blue is positive.
Data for all officially numbered solar regions according to the Solar Region Summary provided by NOAA/SWPC, all other regions are numbered sequentially as they emerge using the STAR spot number. Comments are my own, as is the STAR spot count (spots observed at or inside a few hours before midnight) and data for regions not numbered by SWPC or where SWPC has observed no spots. SWPC active region numbers in the table below and in the active region map above are the historic SWPC/USAF numbers. SWPC data considered to be not sufficiently precise (location, area, classification) are red colored.
|Active region||SWPC date numbered
|Spot count||Location at midnight||Area||Classification||SDO / HMI 4K continuum
image with magnetic polarity overlays
was AR S7251
|Total spot count:||47||159||79|
|Sunspot number:||147||309||209||(total spot count + 10 * number of spotted regions)|
|Weighted SN:||83||196||116||(Sum of total spot count + classification weighting for each AR. Classification weighting: X=0, R=3, A/S=5, H/K=10)|
|Relative sunspot number (Wolf number):||162||170||167|
|Month||Average solar flux||International sunspot number
|Smoothed sunspot number (4)||Average ap
|166.3||146.1 (SC24 peak)||110.5||10.70|
|2014.04||143.9||144.8||112.5||116.4 (solar max)||7.88|
(Solar minimum using 365d smoothing:
November 17, 2019)
(ISN 13 months smoothed
|2021.06||79.4||81.8||25.3||(26.9 projected, +1.0)||5.52|
|2021.07||81.0||83.6||34.4||(29.9 projected, +3.0)||5.51|
|2021.08||77.7||79.7||22.4||(34.6 projected, +4.7)||6.19|
|2021.09||87.0||88.2||51.5||(40.3 projected, +5.7)||6.33|
|2021.10||88.9||88.3||38.1||(44.7 projected, +4.4)||7.38|
|2021.11||86.2||84.4||35.1||(49.3 projected, +4.6)||9.9|
|2021.12||94.3 (1)||35.9 (2A) / 53.0 (2B) / 59.7 (2C)||(55.1 projected, +5.8)||(6.9)|
|2022.01||(58.7 projected, +3.6)|
|2022.02||(63.5 projected, +4.8)|
|2022.03||(68.9 projected, +5.4)|
|2022.04||(74.0 projected, +5.1)|
|2022.05||(80.4 projected, +6.4)|
1) Running average based on the daily 20:00 UTC observed solar flux value at 2800 MHz
and any corrections applied to that measurement.
2A) Current impact on the monthly sunspot number based on the Boulder (NOAA/SWPC) sunspot number (accumulated daily sunspots / month days).
2B) Boulder SN current month average to date.
2C) STAR SDO 1K Wolf number 30 day average.
3) Running average based on the quicklook and definitive Potsdam WDC ap indices. Values in red are based on the definitive international GFZ Potsdam WDC ap indices.
4) Source: SIDC-SILSO.
This report has been prepared by Jan Alvestad. It is based on the analysis of data from whatever sources are available at the time the report is prepared. All time references are to Universal Time. Comments and suggestions are always welcome.
SDO images are courtesy of NASA/SDO and the AIA, EVE, and HMI science teams.