|Charts (* = updated daily)||Data and archive|
|Solar wind (*)||Solar and geomagnetic data - last month (*)|
|Electron fluence (*)||Archived daily reports and monthly data since 2003.01 (May 1, 2023)|
|Solar cycle||Solar cycles 23-25 (May 1, 2023)||Historical solar and geomagnetic data charts 1954-2006 (April 5, 2007)|
|Cycle 24-25 progress (May 1, 2023)||Noon SDO sunspot count 1K image / 4K (*)|
|Solar cycles 1-24 (July 1, 2020)||POES auroral activity level [October 2009 - December 2012]|
|Comparison of cycles 21-25 (May 1, 2023)||3rd SSN Workshop, Tucson, 2013|
|Comparison of cycles 12-14, 16, 24-25 (May 1, 2023)||4th SSN Workshop, Locarno, 2014|
|Solar polar fields vs. solar cycles (May 29, 2023)||Cycle 25 spots (final update December 25, 2019)|
|Solar cycles 24-25 transition using 365d smoothing||Research: Solar Cycle 25 Started on November 17, 2019 with 365 Days Smoothing|
The geomagnetic field was quiet on May 29. Solar wind speed at SOHO ranged between 377 and 464 km/sec. The high latitude magnetometer at Andenes recorded quiet to unsettled levels.
Solar flux density measured at 20h UT on 2.8 GHz was 154.4 - decreasing 2.4 over the previous solar rotation. (Centered 1 year average SF at 1 AU - 183 days ago: 141.30. In comparison SC24 peaked on June 28, 2014 at 145.50). The Potsdam WDC planetary A index was 4 (STAR Ap - based on the mean of three hour interval ap indices: 3.6). Three hour interval K indices: 01111112 (planetary), 01111322 (Boulder), 12010203 (Andenes).
The background x-ray flux is at the class C1 level (GOES 16).
At the time of counting spots (see image time), spots were observed in 19 active regions using 2K resolution (SN: 301) and in 18 active regions using 1K resolution (SN: 243) SDO/HMI images.
Region 13310 [S20W83] was mostly quiet and stable.
Region 13311 [N20W67] decayed further and was quiet.
Region 13312 [S23W59] decayed slowly and was mostly quiet. C1 flares: C1.0 @ 03:37 UT
Region 13313 [N22W53] gained a few spots and was quiet.
Region 13315 [S17W34] lost spots. There are 2 small magnetic delta configurations in the trailing spot section. M class flaring is possible. C1 flares: C1.4 @ 00:59, C1.7 @ 05:34, C1.2 @ 11:36, C1.2 @ 13:39 UT
Region 13316 [N08W07] decayed slowly and quietly.
New region 13317 [N28W39] emerged on May 28 and was numbered the next day by SWPC as the region developed further.
New region 13318 [N24W32] emerged on May 27 with SWPC numbering the region 2 days later. The region developed quickly on May 29. C1 flares: C1.1 @ 02:03 UT
New region 13319 [S19W01] emerged on May and was assigned its NOAA number 2 days later as slow development continued.
New region 13320 [S16E80] rotated into view just before noon and has a single large spot (initially AR S8605). C1 flares: C1.7 @ 04:33, C1.6 @ 05:04 UT
Spotted regions not observed (or interpreted
differently) by SWPC/USAF:
S8590 [N15W85] was quiet and stable.
S8591 [N14W18] reemerged with tiny spots.
S8595 [N23W05] was quiet and stable.
S8600 [S12E12] was quiet and stable.
S8602 [N11E07] was mostly quiet and stable.
S8603 [N09E72] was mostly quiet and stable.
New region S8606 [N09E82] rotated into view with a tiny spot.
New region S8607 [N17W23] emerged with tiny spots.
New region S8608 [S33E23] emerged with a tiny spot.
|Magnitude||Peak time (UT)||Location||Source||Recorded by||Comment|
May 27-29: No obviously Earth directed CMEs were observed.
[Coronal hole history (since October 2002)]
[Compare today's report to the situation one solar rotation ago: 28 days ago 27 days ago 26 days ago]
A trans equatorial coronal hole (CH1150) will likely rotate across the central meridian on May 31 - June 1. A southern hemisphere coronal hole (CH1151) will be Earth facing on May 29-31, however, it is uncertain if CH1151 is too far to the south to be the source of a geoeffective disturbance.
Long distance low and medium frequency (below 2 MHz) propagation along paths north of due west over upper middle and high latitudes is poor. Propagation on long distance northeast-southwest paths is poor.
Quiet to unsettled conditions are expected for May 30 - June 1.
|Coronal holes (1)||Coronal mass ejection (2)||M and X class flares (3)|
1) Effects from a coronal hole
could reach Earth within the next 5 days. When the high speed
stream has arrived the color changes to green.
2) Effects from a CME are likely to be observed at Earth within 96 hours.
3) There is a possibility of either M or X class flares within the next 48 hours.
Green: 0-30% probability, Yellow: 30-70% probability, Red: 70-100% probability.
(Click on image for 2K resolution). 4K resolution. Compare to the previous day's image. 0.5K image
When available the active region map has a coronal hole polarity overlay where red (pink) is negative and blue is positive.
Data for all officially numbered solar regions according to the Solar Region Summary provided by NOAA/SWPC, all other regions are numbered sequentially as they emerge using the STAR spot number. Comments are my own, as is the STAR spot count (spots observed at or inside a few hours before midnight) and data for regions not numbered by SWPC or where SWPC has observed no spots. SWPC active region numbers in the table below and in the active region map above are the historic SWPC/USAF numbers. SWPC data considered to be not sufficiently precise (location, area, classification) are colored red.
|Active region||SWPC date numbered
|Spot count||Location at midnight||Area||Classification||SDO / HMI 4K continuum
image with magnetic polarity overlays
merged with AR 13311 on 2023.05.22
SWPC resurrected the region on 2023.05.24
see AR S8590
was AR S8605
strange SWPC data, maybe just wrong location and intended for S8603?
|Total spot count:||53||111||63|
|Sunspot number:||153||301||243||(total spot count + 10 * number of spotted regions)|
|Weighted SN:||96||186||111||(Sum of total spot count + classification weighting for each AR. Classification weighting: X=0, R=3, A/S=5, H/K=10)|
|Relative sunspot number (Wolf number):||168||166||194|
|Month||Average solar flux||International sunspot number
|Smoothed sunspot number (4)||Average ap
|166.3||146.1 (SC24 peak)||110.5||10.70|
|2014.04||143.9||144.8||112.5||116.4 (SC24 solar max)||7.88|
(Solar minimum using 365d smoothing:
November 17, 2019)
(ISN 13 months smoothed
|2022.11||123.4||120.7||80.5||(100.4 projected, +1.7)||9.33|
|2022.12||147.9||143.4||112.8||(104.1 projected, +3.7)||10.99|
|2023.01||182.4||176.6||143.6||(110.1 projected, +6.0)||8.73|
|2023.02||167.2||163.2||110.9||(115.2 projected, +5.1)||14.48
|2023.03||157.2||155.6||122.6||(118.3 projected, +3.1)||14.42|
|2023.04||145.4||146.4||96.4||(123.7 projected, +5.4)||13.40|
|2023.05||155.2 (1)||116.3 (2A) / 124.3 (2B) / 155.1 (2C)||(129.3 projected, +5.6)||(11.3)|
|2023.06||(132.5 projected, +3.2)|
|2023.07||(132.0 projected, -0.5)|
|2023.08||(133.0 projected, +1.0)|
|2023.09||(136.4 projected, +3.4)|
|2023.10||(138.3 projected, +1.9)|
|2023.11||(141.4 projected, +3.1)|
|2023.12||(142.5 projected max SC25)|
1) Running average based on the daily 20:00 UTC observed solar flux value at 2800 MHz
and any corrections applied to that measurement.
2A) Current impact on the monthly sunspot number based on the Boulder (NOAA/SWPC) sunspot number (accumulated daily sunspots / month days).
2B) Boulder SN current month average to date.
2C) STAR SDO 1K Wolf number 30 day average.
3) Running average based on the quicklook and definitive Potsdam WDC ap indices. Values in red are based on the definitive international GFZ Potsdam WDC ap indices.
4) Source: SIDC-SILSO.
This report has been prepared by Jan Alvestad. It is based on the analysis of data from whatever sources are available at the time the report is prepared. All time references are to Universal Time. Comments and suggestions are always welcome.
SDO images are courtesy of NASA/SDO and the AIA, EVE, and HMI science teams.