Last major update issued on July 5, 2011 at 03:55 UTC.
[Solar and geomagnetic data - last month (updated
[Solar wind and electron fluence charts (updated daily)
[Solar cycles 21-24 (last update July 2, 2011)]
[Solar cycles 1-20]
[Graphical comparison of cycles 21, 22, 23 and 24 (last update July 2, 2011)]
[Graphical comparison of cycles 10, 12, 13, 14, 16 and 24 (last update July 2, 2011)]
[Historical solar and geomagnetic data charts 1954-2006 (last update April 5, 2007)]
[Archived reports since January 2003 (last update July 2, 2011)]
[POES auroral activity level charts since October
2009 - updated July 4, 2011]
Annotated geomagnetic activity charts - Carrington rotation 2109 [April-May 2011] - 2110 [May-June 2011]
[Solar polar fields vs solar cycles - updated June 27, 2011]
The geomagnetic field was quiet to active on July 4. Solar wind speed ranged between 346 and 452 km/s. A high speed stream from CH462 was observed beginning at ACE near 15h UTC.
Solar flux measured at 20h UTC on 2.8 GHz was 85.0 (decreasing 11.4 over the last solar rotation). The planetary A index was 11 (STAR Ap - based on the mean of three hour interval ap indices: 11.4). Three hour interval K indices: 12212344 (planetary), 22212223 (Boulder).
The background x-ray flux is at the class B1 level.
At midnight UTC the visible solar disk had 5 spotted regions.
Region 11242 decayed again and had only a single small spot by the end
of the day. The region is rotating over the northwest limb.
Region 11243 decayed slowly and quietly.
Region 11244 decayed losing spots, magnetic complexity and penumbral area.
Spotted regions not numbered by NOAA/SWPC:
[S1095] emerged in the northeastern quadrant on July 2. Location at midnight: N15E04
[S1096] rotated into view at the northeast limb on July 4. Location at midnight: S19E67
July 2 and 4: No obviously earth directed CMEs were observed.
July 3: A small CME was observed in STEREO and LASCO imagery after a B9 event in region 11244 early in the day.
Coronal hole history (since late October
Compare today's report to the situation one solar rotation ago: 28 days ago 27 days ago 26 days ago
A trans equatorial coronal hole (CH462) was Earth facing on July 1-2. A coronal hole (CH463) in the northern hemisphere will rotate into an Earth facing position on July 5-6.
The above coronal hole map is based on a new method where coronal holes are detected automatically. The method may need some fine tuning, however, it has significant advantages over detecting coronal holes manually. The main improvement is the ability to detect coronal holes at and just beyond the solar limbs. Early results using this method for SDO images over a span of several weeks indicate a good match between coronal holes observed over the visible disk and their extent and position at the east and west limbs. Note that the polar coronal holes are easily detected using the new method, the extent and intensity of both holes are consistent with other data sources.
Long distance low and medium frequency (below 2 MHz) propagation along paths north of due west over high and upper middle latitudes is poor. Propagation on long distance northeast-southwest paths is fair to good.
The geomagnetic field is expected to be quiet to active on July 5 due to effects from CH462 becoming quiet on July 6-7. A high speed stream from CH463 could reach Earth late on July 8 and cause some unsettled and active intervals until July 10.
|Coronal holes (1)||Coronal mass ejections (2)||M and X class flares (3)|
1) Effects from a coronal hole could reach Earth within the
next 5 days. When the high speed stream has arrived the color changes to
2) Effects from a CME are likely to be observed at Earth within 96 hours.
3) There is a possibility of either M or X class flares within the next 48 hours.
Green: 0-20% probability, Yellow: 20-60% probability, Red: 60-100% probability.
(Click on image for higher resolution image) Compare to the previous day's image
When available the active region map has a coronal hole polarity overlay where red (pink) is negative and blue (blue-green) is positive.
Data for all numbered solar regions according to the Solar Region Summary provided by NOAA/SWPC. Comments are my own, as is the STAR spot count (spots observed at or inside a few hours before midnight) and data for regions not numbered by SWPC or where SWPC has observed no spots. SWPC active region numbers in the table below and in the active region map above are the historic SWPC/USAF numbers.
|Active region||Date numbered
|Spot count||Location at midnight||Area||Classification||SDO / HMI 4K continuum
image with polarity overlay
|Total spot count:||14||24|
|Month||Average measured solar flux||International sunspot number (SIDC)||Smoothed sunspot number||Average ap
|2008.07||65.7 (SF minimum)||0.5||2.8 (-0.4)|
|2010.04||75.9||8.0||14.0 (+1.7)||10.22 / 10.24|
|2010.05||73.8||8.7||15.5 (+1.5)||9.18 / 8.15|
|2010.06||72.5||13.6||16.4 (+0.9)||8.17 / 6.85|
|2010.07||79.8||16.1||16.7 (+0.3)||6.31 / 5.15|
|2010.08||79.2||19.6||17.4 (+0.7)||8.49 / 7.77|
|2010.09||81.1||25.2||19.6 (+2.2)||5.33 / 5.45|
|2010.10||81.6||23.5||23.2 (+3.6)||6.07 / 6.27|
|2010.11||82.5||21.5||26.5 (+3.3)||4.80 / 5.50|
|2010.12||84.2||14.4||28.8 (+2.3)||3.41 / 4.35|
|2011.01||83.6||19.1||(30.6 predicted, +1.8)||4.32 / 5.51|
|2011.02||94.6||29.4||(32.6 predicted, +2.0)||5.41 / 6.44|
|2011.03||115.0||56.2||(35.2 predicted, +2.6)||7.79 / 8.18|
|2011.04||112.6||54.4||(38.1 predicted, +2.9)||9.71 / 8.83|
|2011.05||95.8||41.6||(41.4 predicted, +3.3)||9.18 / 8.94|
|2011.06||95.8||37.0||(45.2 predicted, +3.8)||8.96|
|2011.07||86.1 (1)||6.2 (2A) / 47.8 (2B)||(49.4 predicted, +4.1)||(9.69)|
1) Running average based on the daily 20:00 UTC observed solar flux value at
2A) Current impact on the monthly sunspot number based on the Boulder (NOAA/SWPC) sunspot number (accumulated daily sunspots / month days). The official SIDC international sunspot number is typically 30-50% lower. 2B) Month average to date.
3) Running average based on the preliminary daily SWPC ap indices. Values in red are based on the official NGDC ap indices.
This report has been prepared by Jan Alvestad. It is based on analysis of data from whatever sources are available at the time the report is prepared. All time references are to the UTC day. Comments and suggestions are always welcome.
SDO images are courtesy of NASA/SDO and the AIA, EVE, and HMI science teams.