Last major update issued on October 29, 2013 at 04:20 UTC.
[Solar and geomagnetic data - last month (updated
[Solar wind and electron fluence charts (updated daily)]
[Solar cycles 23-24 (last update October 1, 2013)] [Cycle 24 progress (last update October 1, 2013) ]
[Solar cycles 1-20]
[Graphical comparison of cycles 21, 22, 23 and 24 (last update October 1, 2013)]
[Graphical comparison of cycles 10, 12, 13, 14, 16 and 24 (last update October 1, 2013)]
[Historical solar and geomagnetic data charts 1954-2006 (last update April 5, 2007)]
[Archived reports since January 2003 (last update October 9, 2013)]
[POES auroral activity level since October
2009 - updated January 26, 2013]
[Solar polar fields vs solar cycles - updated October 10, 2013]
[Presentation 3rd SSN Workshop, Tucson, 2013 (pdf)]
The geomagnetic field was very quiet on October 28. Solar wind speed at SOHO ranged between 270 and 320 km/s.
Solar flux measured at 20h UTC on 2.8 GHz was 159.9 (increasing 53.1 over the last solar rotation). The 90 day 10.7 flux at 1 AU was 117.0. The Potsdam WDC planetary A index was 1 (STAR Ap - based on the mean of three hour interval ap indices: 1.4). Three hour interval K indices: 00100000 (planetary), 12101211 (Boulder).
The background x-ray flux was at the class C1 level.
At the time of counting spots (see image time) spots were observed in 8 active regions in 2K resolution (SN: 209) and 8 active regions in 1K resolution (SN: 145) SDO images on the visible solar disk.
Region 11875 [N06W81] was very active during
the day. The region has a magnetic delta structure in the southern part of the
large penumbra. A major proton flare is possible while the region transits the
C5+ flares: major X1.0/2N at 02:03 (associated with a
partial halo CME), major M5.1/2B at 04:41, C5.2 at 09:22, M2.8/1N at 14:05, long
duration M1.9 event pekaing at 15:54 (unreported by SWPC), M1.5 at 20:57 UTC.
Region 11877 [S12W57] decayed slowly but could still produce occasional flares. C5+ flares: M1.4/2N at 11:53 UTC
Region 11879 [S12W42] decayed slowly and quietly.
Region 11882 [S10E21] still has a magnetic delta structure and could produce a major flare. C5+ flares: M2.7/1N at 15:01, M4.4 at 15:15 UTC. A full halo CME was associated with the M flares.
Region 11883 [N02E45] was quiet and stable (this is actually a southern hemisphere region).
Region 11884 [S15E54] developed slowly and could produce a major flare.
Spotted regions not numbered by SWPC:
New region S2784 [S17E08] decayed slowly and quietly.
New region S2787 [N13E06] emerged with a few spots.
October 26: An asymmetric halo CME was observed after the M1.8 LDE near
11h. Due to many other CMEs it is difficult to determine if this one was full or
partial halo. The CME could reach Earth on October 29.
October 27: The CMEs originating in AR 11875 does not appear to be Earth directed.
October 28: A partial halo CME was observed in LASCO imagery after the X1 flare early in the day. The CME could reach Earth on October 30 or 31. A full halo CME was observed after an M4.4 event in AR 11882 and could reach Earth on October 30 or 31.
Coronal hole history (since October
Compare today's report to the situation one solar rotation ago: 28 days ago 27 days ago 26 days ago
A small coronal hole near the center of the disk will be in an Earth facing position on October 29.
Long distance low and medium frequency (below 2 MHz) propagation along paths north of due west over high and upper middle latitudes is poor due to enhanced proton levels. Propagation on long distance northeast-southwest paths is fair.
The geomagnetic field is expected to be quiet to unsettled on October 29 becoming quiet to minor storm on October 30-31 due to CME effects.
|Coronal holes (1)||Coronal mass ejection (2)||M and X class flares (3)|
1) Effects from a coronal hole could reach Earth within the
next 5 days. When the high speed stream has arrived the color changes to
2) Effects from a CME are likely to be observed at Earth within 96 hours.
3) There is a possibility of either M or X class flares within the next 48 hours.
Green: 0-20% probability, Yellow: 20-60% probability, Red: 60-100% probability.
(Click on image for 2K resolution) Compare to the previous day's image. 0.5K image
When available the active region map has a coronal hole polarity overlay where red (pink) is negative and blue is positive.
Data for all numbered solar regions according to the Solar Region Summary provided by NOAA/SWPC. Comments are my own, as is the STAR spot count (spots observed at or inside a few hours before midnight) and data for regions not numbered by SWPC or where SWPC has observed no spots. SWPC active region numbers in the table below and in the active region map above are the historic SWPC/USAF numbers.
|Active region||Date numbered
|Spot count||Location at midnight||Area||Classification||SDO / HMI 4K continuum
image with magnetic polarity overlay
|11885||2013.10.26||1||S17E49||0170||HSX||part of AR 11884|
|Total spot count:||75||129||65|
|Sunspot number:||155||209||145||(total spot count + 10 * number of spotted regions)|
|Weighted SN:||120||180||116||(Sum of total spot count + classification weighting for each AR. Classification weighting: X=0, R=3, A/S=5, H/K=10)|
|Relative sunspot number (Wolf number):||93||73||80||k * (sunspot number). k = 0.6 for SWPC, k = 0.35 for STAR SDO 2K, k = 0.55 for STAR SDO 1K|
|Month||Average measured solar flux||International sunspot number (SIDC)||Smoothed sunspot number||Average ap
|2011.11||153.5 (cycle peak)||96.7 (cycle peak)||61.1 (+1.2)||5.55|
likely cycle 24 max
|2013.04||124.8||72.4||(56.2 projected, -1.3)||5.40|
|2013.05||131.4||78.7||(55.8 projected, -0.4)||9.73|
|2013.06||110.1||52.5||(56.0 projected, +0.2)||12.60|
|2013.07||115.5||57.0||(56.1 projected, +0.1)||9.47|
|2013.08||114.6||66.0||(55.9 projected, -0.2)||8.27|
|2013.09||102.6||36.9||(55.4 projected, -0.5)||5.23|
|2013.10||130.6 (1)||113.3 (2A) / 125.4 (2B) / 73.6 (2C)||(53.9 projected, -1.5)||(7.67)|
1) Running average based on the daily 20:00 UTC observed solar flux value at
2A) Current impact on the monthly sunspot number based on the Boulder (NOAA/SWPC) sunspot number (accumulated daily sunspots / month days). The official SIDC international sunspot number is typically 30-50% lower. 2B) Boulder SN current month average to date. 2C) STAR SDO 1K Wolf number 30 day average.
3) Running average based on the quicklook and definitive Potsdam WDC ap indices. Values in red are based on the definitive international Potsdam WDC ap indices.
This report has been prepared by Jan Alvestad. It is based on the analysis of data from whatever sources are available at the time the report is prepared. All time references are to the UTC day. Comments and suggestions are always welcome.
SDO images are courtesy of NASA/SDO and the AIA, EVE, and HMI science teams.