Last major update issued on January 2, 2014 at 05:25 UTC.
[Solar and geomagnetic data - last month (updated
[Solar wind and electron fluence charts (updated daily)]
[Solar cycles 23-24 (last update January 1, 2014)] [Cycle 24 progress (last update January 1, 2014) ]
[Solar cycles 1-20]
[Graphical comparison of cycles 21, 22, 23 and 24 (last update January 1, 2014)]
[Graphical comparison of cycles 10, 12, 13, 14, 16 and 24 (last update January 1, 2014)]
[Historical solar and geomagnetic data charts 1954-2006 (last update April 5, 2007)]
[Archived reports since January 2003 (last update January 1, 2014)]
[POES auroral activity level since October
2009 - updated January 26, 2013]
[Solar polar fields vs solar cycles - updated December 16, 2013]
[Presentation 3rd SSN Workshop, Tucson, 2013 (pdf)]
The geomagnetic field was quiet to active on January 1. Solar wind speed at SOHO ranged between 359 and 596 km/s. A high speed stream associated with CH598 began at ACE near 10h UTC.
Solar flux measured at 20h UTC on 2.8 GHz was 159.6 (increasing 10.0 over the last solar rotation). The 90 day 10.7 flux at 1 AU was 140.9. The Potsdam WDC planetary A index was 12 (STAR Ap - based on the mean of three hour interval ap indices: 12.0). Three hour interval K indices: 12234333 (planetary), 01235332 (Boulder).
The background x-ray flux is at the class C2 level.
At the time of counting spots (see image time) spots were observed in 12 active regions in 2K resolution (SN: 249) and 10 active regions in 1K resolution (SN: 165) SDO images on the visible solar disk.
Region 11936 [S17W52] lost spots and complexity
after the M9 flare.
C5+ flare: major M9.9/2B at 18:52 UTC.
Region 11937 [S13W18] gained a trailing umbra.
Region 11938 [S14W02] was quiet and stable.
Region 11940 [S11W59] changed quickly during the day. Early in the day a new region emerged nearby and to the west of AR 11940. For some hours both regions were distinct, however, flux emerged quickly in the western region and obliterated the original AR 11940. At least C flares are possible.
Region 11941 [S13W33] developed slowly and quietly.
Region 11942 [N09E52] developed slowly and quietly.
Region 11943 [S12E58] was quiet and stable.
New region 11944 [S07E77] rotated partly into view on December 31 and was numbered the next day by SWPC. This is a large and complex region with X class flare potential. The region produced an M class flare early on January 2.
Spotted regions not numbered (or interpreted differently) by SWPC:
S2959 [N18W01] decayed slowly and quietly.
S2971 [S22E31] reemerged with penumbra spots.
New region S2979 [N10E32] emerged with penumbra spots.
New region S2980 [S04E20] emerged with a penumbra spot.
December 30 - January 1: No obviously Earth directed CMEs were observed in LASCO and STEREO imagery.
Coronal hole history (since October
Compare today's report to the situation one solar rotation ago: 28 days ago 27 days ago 26 days ago
A recurrent trans equatorial coronal hole (CH598) was in an Earth facing position on December 29-31.
Long distance low and medium frequency (below 2 MHz) propagation along paths north of due west over upper middle latitudes is poor. Propagation on long distance northeast-southwest paths is fair.
The geomagnetic field is expected to be quiet to active on January 2-3 due to effects from CH598 and quiet to unsettled on January 4.
|Coronal holes (1)||Coronal mass ejection (2)||M and X class flares (3)|
1) Effects from a coronal hole could reach Earth within the
next 5 days. When the high speed stream has arrived the color changes to
2) Effects from a CME are likely to be observed at Earth within 96 hours.
3) There is a possibility of either M or X class flares within the next 48 hours.
Green: 0-20% probability, Yellow: 20-60% probability, Red: 60-100% probability.
(Click on image for 2K resolution) Compare to the previous day's image. 0.5K image
When available the active region map has a coronal hole polarity overlay where red (pink) is negative and blue is positive.
Data for all numbered solar regions according to the Solar Region Summary provided by NOAA/SWPC. Comments are my own, as is the STAR spot count (spots observed at or inside a few hours before midnight) and data for regions not numbered by SWPC or where SWPC has observed no spots. SWPC active region numbers in the table below and in the active region map above are the historic SWPC/USAF numbers.
|Active region||Date numbered
|Spot count||Location at midnight||Area||Classification||SDO / HMI 4K continuum
image with magnetic polarity overlay
|Total spot count:||36||129||65|
|Sunspot number:||106||249||165||(total spot count + 10 * number of spotted regions)|
|Weighted SN:||70||170||106||(Sum of total spot count + classification weighting for each AR. Classification weighting: X=0, R=3, A/S=5, H/K=10)|
|Relative sunspot number (Wolf number):||64||87||91||k * (sunspot number). k = 0.6 for SWPC, k = 0.35 for STAR SDO 2K, k = 0.55 for STAR SDO 1K|
|Month||Average measured solar flux||International sunspot number (SIDC)||Smoothed sunspot number||Average ap
|2011.11||153.5 (cycle peak)||96.7 (cycle peak)||61.1 (+1.2)||5.55|
possible cycle 24 max
|2013.07||115.5||57.0||(65.4 projected, +2.8)||9.47|
|2013.08||114.6||66.0||(67.8 projected, +2.4)||8.27|
|2013.09||102.6||36.9||(70.1 projected, +2.3)||5.23|
|2013.10||132.1||85.6||(70.0 projected, -0.1)||7.71|
|2013.11||148.3||77.6||(68.1 projected, -1.9)||5.68|
|2013.12||147.7||90.3||(67.4 projected, -0.7)||4.6|
|2014.01||159.6 (1)||3.4 (2A) / 106 (2B) / 93.2 (2C)||(67.6 projected, +0.2)||(12)|
1) Running average based on the daily 20:00 UTC observed solar flux value at
2A) Current impact on the monthly sunspot number based on the Boulder (NOAA/SWPC) sunspot number (accumulated daily sunspots / month days). The official SIDC international sunspot number is typically 30-50% lower. 2B) Boulder SN current month average to date. 2C) STAR SDO 1K Wolf number 30 day average.
3) Running average based on the quicklook and definitive Potsdam WDC ap indices. Values in red are based on the definitive international Potsdam WDC ap indices.
This report has been prepared by Jan Alvestad. It is based on the analysis of data from whatever sources are available at the time the report is prepared. All time references are to the UTC day. Comments and suggestions are always welcome.
SDO images are courtesy of NASA/SDO and the AIA, EVE, and HMI science teams.