Last major update issued on March 29, 2015 at 07:35 UT.
[Solar and geomagnetic
data - last month (updated daily)]
[Solar wind and electron fluence charts (updated daily)]
[Solar cycles 23-24 (last update March 1, 2015)] [Cycle 24 progress (last update March 1, 2015) ]
[Solar cycles 1-20]
[Graphical comparison of cycles 21, 22, 23 and 24 (last update March 1, 2015)]
[Graphical comparison of cycles 10, 12, 13, 14, 16 and 24 (last update March 1, 2015)]
[Historical solar and geomagnetic data charts 1954-2006 (last update April 5, 2007)]
[Archived reports since January 2003 (last update March 1, 2015)]
[Noon SDO sunspot count 1K Reference: 4K (large file) (updated daily)]
[POES auroral activity
level October 2009 - December 2012]
[Solar polar fields vs solar cycles - updated March 15, 2015]
[Presentations: 3rd SSN Workshop, Tucson, 2013 (pdf) / 4th SSN Workshop, Locarno, 2014]
The geomagnetic field was quiet to unsettled on March 28. Solar wind speed at SOHO ranged between 346 and 519 km/s, increasing slowly as a co-rotating interaction region became geoeffective.
Solar flux at 20h UTC on 2.8 GHz was 145.6 (increasing 18.0 over the last solar rotation). The 90 day 10.7 flux at 1 AU was 129.2. The Potsdam WDC planetary A index was 8 (STAR Ap - based on the mean of three hour interval ap indices: 7.6). Three hour interval K indices: 02321223 (planetary), 01422323 (Boulder).
The background x-ray flux is at the class C1 level.
At the time of counting spots (see image time), spots were observed in 12 active regions using 2K resolution (SN: 230) and 11 active regions using 1K resolution (SN: 159) SDO images on the visible solar disk.
Region 12303 [N18W75] developed slowly in the
trailing spot section.
Region 12305 [S10W23] decayed slowly and was mostly quiet.
Region 12307 [S19W52] was quiet and stable.
Region 12310 [N08E01] decayed slowly and quietly.
Region 12313 [N17E13] decayed slowly and quietly.
Region 12314 [S22E44] was quiet and stable.
New region 12315 [S19W13] emerged on March 23 and was numbered by SWPC 5 days later. The region developed on March 28 as new flux surfaced.
Spotted regions not numbered (or interpreted
differently) by SWPC:
S4298 [S11W36] decayed slowly and quietly.
S4311 [S26E11] developed slwoly and quietly.
S4323 [S20E58] developed slowly and quietly.
New region S4324 [N02E52] was observed with penumbra spots.
New region S4325 [S15E18] emerged with a penumbra spot.
|Magnitude||Peak time (UTC)||Location||AR||Recorded by||Comment|
|C2.0||18:33||12303||SDO||source difficult to determine, simultaneous activity in AR 12307 and 12309|
Flare activity according to SDO/EVE/ESP XRS-B proxy
March 26-28: No obviously Earth directed CMEs were observed.
history (since October 2002)]
[Compare today's report to the situation one solar rotation ago: 28 days ago 27 days ago 26 days ago]
An extension of the southern polar coronal hole could be associated with a potentially geoeffective co-rotating interaction region. The extension rotated across the central meridian on March 26-28. A recurrent trans equatorial coronal hole (CH661) will rotate into an Earth facing position on March 30-31.
Long distance low and medium frequency (below 2 MHz) propagation along paths north of due west over upper middle latitudes is poor. Propagation on long distance northeast-southwest paths is poor.
The geomagnetic field is expected to be quiet to unsettled on March 29-30 with a chance of active to minor storm conditions due to a co-rotating interaction region associated with an extension of the southern polar coronal hole. Quiet to unsettled is likely on March 31 - April 1. On April 2-3 a high speed stream associated with CH661 could cause unsettled to active conditions.
|Coronal holes (1)||Coronal mass ejection (2)||M and X class flares (3)|
1) Effects from a coronal hole could reach Earth within the
next 5 days. When the high speed stream has arrived the color changes to green.
2) Effects from a CME are likely to be observed at Earth within 96 hours.
3) There is a possibility of either M or X class flares within the next 48 hours.
Green: 0-30% probability, Yellow: 30-70% probability, Red: 70-100% probability.
(Click on image for 2K resolution) Compare to the previous day's image. 0.5K image
When available the active region map has a coronal hole polarity overlay where red (pink) is negative and blue is positive.
Data for all numbered solar regions according to the Solar Region Summary provided by NOAA/SWPC. Comments are my own, as is the STAR spot count (spots observed at or inside a few hours before midnight) and data for regions not numbered by SWPC or where SWPC has observed no spots. SWPC active region numbers in the table below and in the active region map above are the historic SWPC/USAF numbers.
|Active region||Date numbered
|Spot count||Location at midnight||Area||Classification||SDO / HMI 4K continuum
image with magnetic polarity overlay
rotated out of view
actual location: N13W92
|12312||2015.03.23||N08W02||trailing part of AR 12310|
|Total spot count:||32||110||49|
|Sunspot number:||82||230||159||(total spot count + 10 * number of spotted regions)|
|Weighted SN:||62||134||73||(Sum of total spot count + classification weighting for each AR. Classification weighting: X=0, R=3, A/S=5, H/K=10)|
|Relative sunspot number (Wolf number):||49||81||87||k * (sunspot number). k = 0.6 for SWPC, k = 0.35 for MSN 2K, k = 0.55 for MSN 1K (MSN=Magnetic Sunspot Number)|
|Month||Average solar flux||International sunspot number
|Smoothed sunspot number||Average
|166.3||102.3 (cycle peak)||78.4 (+1.1)||10.70|
(likely solar max)
|2014.09||146.6||148.1||87.6||(71.6 projected, -4.0)||9.78|
|2014.10||153.4||152.9||60.6||(69.2 projected, -2.4)||8.96|
|2014.11||154.8||151.4||70.1||(67.4 projected, -1.8)||9.33|
|2014.12||158.7||153.8||78.0||(66.3 projected, -1.1)||11.24|
|2015.01||141.9||137.3||67.0||(65.1 projected, -1.2)||9.46|
|2015.02||129.1||126.0||44.8||(63.6 projected, -1.5)||9.92|
|2015.03||(125.1)||55.9 (2A) / 61.9 (2B) / 60.6 (2C)||(61.6 projected, -2.0)||(16.5)|
1) Running average based on the daily 20:00 UTC observed solar flux value at
2A) Current impact on the monthly sunspot number based on the Boulder (NOAA/SWPC) sunspot number (accumulated daily sunspots / month days). The official WDC-SILSO international sunspot number is typically 30-50% lower. 2B) Boulder SN current month average to date. 2C) STAR SDO 1K Wolf number 30 day average.
3) Running average based on the quicklook and definitive Potsdam WDC ap indices. Values in red are based on the definitive international GFZ Potsdam WDC ap indices.
This report has been prepared by Jan Alvestad. It is based on the analysis of data from whatever sources are available at the time the report is prepared. All time references are to the UTC day. Comments and suggestions are always welcome.
SDO images are courtesy of NASA/SDO and the AIA, EVE, and HMI science teams.