Last update issued on January 31, 2003 at 04:00 UTC.
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The geomagnetic field was quiet to minor storm on January 30. Solar wind speed ranged between 417 and 554 km/sec under the influence of a moderately strong coronal stream.
Solar flux measured at 20h UTC on 2.8 GHz was 121.2. The planetary A
index was 26 (STAR Ap - based on the mean of three hour interval ap indices: 26.9).
Three hour interval K indices: 54444542 (planetary), 44343541 (Boulder).
The background x-ray flux is at the class B2 level.
At midnight there were 7 spotted regions on the visible disk, 1 of which has not yet been numbered by SEC/NOAA. Solar flare activity was very low (no C class flares recorded).
Region 10266 decayed further and is rotating quietly out of view at the southwest limb.
Region 10269 decayed slowly and quietly.
Region 10271 decayed and lost most of its penumbral area as the region rotated to the southwest limb.
Region 10272 decayed quickly and simplified.
Region 10273 decayed and lost about half of its penumbral area.
Region 10274 was quiet and stable.
Spotted regions not yet numbered by SEC/NOAA:
[S84] A new region emerged in the northeast quadrant near the central meridian. Location at midnight: N11E04.
January 28-29: No obviously geoeffective CMEs observed.
January 30: A large filament eruption across the central meridian and stretching from the equator until almost halfway towards the north pole was observed beginning at about 06:30 UTC. An associated full halo CME was observed with the leading part seen above the northwest limb at 10:06 UTC in LASCO C2 images. The CME will likely impact Earth sometime between 15h UTC on February 1 and 09h UTC on February 2.
Coronal hole history (since late October 2002)
Compare today's report with the situation one solar rotation ago: 28 days ago 27 days ago 26 days ago
Two coronal holes in the northern hemisphere were geoeffective on January 29-30. A fairly large and well defined trans equatorial extension of the northern polar coronal hole will rotate into a geoeffective position on February 1-3.
Processed SOHO EIT 284 image at 01:06 UTC on January 31. Any black areas on the solar disk are likely coronal holes.
The geomagnetic field is expected to be quiet to active on January 31 due to a coronal stream. Another coronal stream will likely arrive on February 1 and cause mainly unsettled conditions until February 2. Late on February 1 or early on February 2 a CME is likely to reach Earth. Active to major storm conditions are possible for the first 24h afterwards. A possibly strong coronal stream will likely begin to influence the geomagnetic field on February 4 and could cause unsettled to minor storm conditions. Long distance medium wave (AM) band propagation along east-west paths over high and upper middle latitudes is poor, propagation along north-south paths is fair.
|Coronal holes (1)||Coronal mass ejections (2)||M and X class flares (3)|
1) Effects from a coronal hole could reach Earth within the
next 5 days.
2) Material from a CME is likely to impact Earth within 96 hours.
3) There is a possibility of either M or X class flares within the next 48 hours.
Green: 0-20% probability, Yellow: 20-60% probability, Red: 60-100% probability.
Composite image based on a SOHO/MDI continuum image and overlaid by a coronal hole image. Region numbering has been included. Compare to the previous day's image.
Data for all numbered solar regions according to the Solar Region Summary provided by SEC/NOAA. Comments are my own, as is the STAR spot count (spots observed at or inside a few hours before midnight) and data for regions not numbered by SEC or where SEC has observed no spots.
|Solar region||Date numbered||SEC
|Location at midnight||Area||Classification||Comment|
area was 0040
reemerged during the
day, then decayed
area was 0030
area was 0080
only positive polarity
|Total spot count:||35||33|
flux at Earth
|International sunspot number||Smoothed sunspot number|
cycle 23 sunspot max.
|2002.07||173.5||99.6||(102.1 predicted, -4.1)|
|2002.08||183.6||116.4||(98.5 predicted, -3.6)|
|2002.09||175.8||109.6||(95.5 predicted, -3.0)|
|2002.10||167.0||97.5||(92.0 predicted, -3.5)|
|2002.11||168.7||95.0||(86.7 predicted, -5.3)|
|2002.12||157.2||81.6||(82.4 predicted, -4.3)|
|2003.01||144.8 (1)||146.9 (2)||(79.4 predicted, -3.0)|
1) Running average based on the daily 20:00 UT observed solar flux value at 2800
2) Unofficial, accumulated value based on the Boulder (SEC/NOAA) sunspot number. The official international sunspot number is typically 25-45% less.
This report has been prepared by Jan Alvestad. It is based partly on my own observations and interpretations, and partly on data from sources noted in solar links. All time references are to the UTC day. Comments and suggestions are always welcome.