Last update issued on October 20, 2003 at 03:20 UTC.
[Solar and geomagnetic data - last month (updated daily)]
[Solar wind and electron fluence charts (updated daily)]
[Solar cycles 21-23 (last update October 4, 2003)]
[Solar cycles 1-20]
[Graphical comparison of cycles 21, 22 and 23 (last update October 4, 2003)]
[Graphical comparison of cycles 2, 10, 13, 17, 20 and 23 (last update October 4, 2003)]
[Historical solar and geomagnetic data charts 1954-2003 (last update October 15, 2003)]
[Archived reports (last update October 15, 2003)]
The geomagnetic field was unsettled to minor storm on October 19. Solar wind speed ranged between 532 and 658 km/sec under the influence of a high speed stream from coronal hole CH63.
Solar flux measured at 20h UTC on 2.8 GHz was 120.4. The planetary A
index was 32 (STAR Ap - based on the mean of three hour interval ap indices: 33.4).
Three hour interval K indices: 34555444 (planetary), 34544544 (Boulder).
The background x-ray flux is at the class B8 level.
At midnight there were 3 spotted regions on the visible disk. Solar flare activity was high. A total of 6 C, 2 M and 1 X class flares was recorded during the day.
Region 10481 decayed slowly and could become spotless today.
Region 10482 decayed slowly and quietly.
Region 10484 developed extremely quickly and has an enormous penumbra containing nearly all spots in the region. A very strong magnetic delta structure is embedded within this penumbra and there is a high probability of further major flares occurring over the next few days. There's even a slight possibility of an X10+ proton flare. Multiple earth directed solar storms (CMEs) are likely to be generated by this region as long as the delta structure persists. Flares: M1.9/1F at 06:26, C1.3 at 08:09, C1.5 at 11:15, C1.9 at 12:04, C1.6 at 13:35, 1.5 at 14:17, X1.1/1N (with an associated weak type II radio sweep) at 16:50, M1.0 at 19:26 and C3.8 at 22:49 UTC.
October 19: A full halo CME was observed in LASCO C3 images after the X1 flare in region 10484. Although most of the ejected material was observed off of the northeast limb and the CME was faint in the southwest, this CME could cause a significant geomagnetic disturbance on October 22.
October 18: A halo CME was observed in LASCO C3 images beginning at 16:18 UTC and was likely associated with an event near the east limb. It is not yet certain if the event was associated with activity in region 10484 or another region behind the southeast limb.
October 17: No potentially geoeffective CMEs observed.
Coronal hole history (since late October 2002)
Compare today's report with the situation one solar rotation ago: 28 days ago 27 days ago 26 days ago
A recurrent trans equatorial hole (CH63) was in a geoeffective position on October 12-19.
Processed SOHO/EIT 284 image at 01:06 UTC on October 20. The darkest areas on the solar disk are likely coronal holes.
The geomagnetic field is expected to be unsettled to minor storm on October 20-21 due to a high speed stream from coronal hole CH63. The CME associated with the X1 flare on October 19 will likely cause active to major geomagnetic storm conditions on October 22.
Long distance low frequency (below 2 MHz) propagation along east-west paths over high and upper middle latitudes is very poor. Propagation along north-south paths is poor to fair. [Trans Atlantic propagation conditions are currently monitored every night on 1470 kHz. Dominant station tonight: Radio Cristal del Uruguay].
|Coronal holes (1)||Coronal mass ejections (2)||M and X class flares (3)|
1) Effects from a coronal hole could reach Earth within the next 5 days.
2) Material from a CME is likely to impact Earth within 96 hours.
3) There is a possibility of either M or X class flares within the next 48 hours.
Green: 0-20% probability, Yellow: 20-60% probability, Red: 60-100% probability.
Compare to the previous day's image.
Data for all numbered solar regions according to the Solar Region Summary provided by NOAA/SEC. Comments are my own, as is the STAR spot count (spots observed at or inside a few hours before midnight) and data for regions not numbered by SEC or where SEC has observed no spots.
|Solar region||Date numbered||SEC
|Location at midnight||Area||Classification||Comment|
classification was HRX
classification was HAX
area was 1400
|Total spot count:||39||38|
flux at Earth
|International sunspot number||Smoothed sunspot number|
cycle 23 sunspot max.
|2003.04||126.4||60.0||(69.6 predicted, -4.5)|
|2003.05||115.7||55.2||(65.3 predicted, -4.3)|
|2003.06||129.3||77.4||(61.5 predicted, -3.8)|
|2003.07||127.7||85.0||(58.0 predicted, -3.5)|
|2003.08||122.1||72.7||(55.0 predicted, -3.0)|
|2003.09||112.2||48.8||(53.0 predicted, -2.0)|
|2003.10||109.4 (1)||43.7 (2)||(50.3 predicted, -2.7)|
1) Running average based on the daily 20:00 UTC observed solar flux value at 2800 MHz.
2) Unofficial, accumulated value based on the Boulder (NOAA/SEC) sunspot number. The official international sunspot number is typically 30-50% less.
This report has been prepared by Jan Alvestad. It is based partly on my own observations and analysis, and partly on data from sources noted in solar links. All time references are to the UTC day. Comments and suggestions are always welcome.