Last major update issued on July 15, 2012 at 06:10 UTC.
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[Solar cycles 21-24 (last update June 2, 2012)] [Cycle 24 progress NEW]
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[POES auroral activity level since October
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[Solar polar fields vs solar cycles - updated June 27, 2011]
The geomagnetic field was quiet to major storm on July 14. Solar wind speed at SOHO ranged between 294 and 686 km/s. A strong solar wind shock was observed at 17:26 UTC at SOHO, the arrival of the CME observed on July 12.
Solar flux measured at 20h UTC on 2.8 GHz was 147.9 (increasing 23.9 over the last solar rotation). The Potsdam WDC planetary A index was 20 (STAR Ap - based on the mean of three hour interval ap indices: 20.3). Three hour interval K indices: 11112365 (planetary), 11112354 (Boulder).
The background x-ray flux is at the class B7 level.
At midnight UTC the visible solar disk had 9 spotted active regions (in 2K resolution SDO images).
Region 11519 [S16W56] developed as new flux emerged centrally and
polarities became slightly intermixed.
Region 11520 [S17W32] decayed significantly losing penumbral area and spots. There's still a magnetic delta structure in the northeastern part of the largest penumbra, however, it is weaker than it has been.
Region 11521 [S21W48] added some penumbral area while the magnetic layout remained mostly unchanged. Flare: M1.0/1F at 04:58 UTC.
Region 11522 [N12W48] developed slowly and was quiet.
Region 11523 [S29E03] was quiet and stable.
Spotted active regions not numbered or interpreted differently by NOAA/SWPC:
S1776 [S16W42] decayed slowly and quietly.
S1777 [S13W35] decayed with mature penumbra disappearing.
S1796 [S28W29] was quiet and stable.
New region S1797 [N09E46] emerged with a single spot.
July 13-14: No obviously Earth directed CMEs were observed in LASCO and STEREO imagery.
Coronal hole history (since October
Compare today's report to the situation one solar rotation ago: 28 days ago 27 days ago 26 days ago
A coronal hole (CH523) in the northern hemisphere rotated across the central meridian on July 14, the coronal hole may be too far to the north to cause geomagnetic effects. A coronal hole (CH524) in the southern hemisphere will likely rotate into an Earth facing position on July 18.
The above coronal hole map is based on a method where coronal holes are detected automatically. While the method may need some fine tuning, it has significant advantages over detecting coronal holes manually. The main improvement is the ability to detect coronal holes at and just beyond the solar limbs. Early results using this method for SDO images over a span of several weeks indicate a good match between coronal holes observed over the visible disk and their extent and position at the east and west limbs. Note that the polar coronal holes are easily detected using this method, the extent and intensity of both CHs are consistent with other data sources.
Long distance low and medium frequency (below 2 MHz) propagation along paths north of due west over high and upper middle latitudes is poor. Propagation on long distance northeast-southwest paths is fair.
The geomagnetic field is expected to be active to major storm on July 15 and quiet to active on July 16 due to CME effects. There's a chance of weak effects from CH523 on July 17-18.
|Coronal holes (1)||Coronal mass ejection (2)||M and X class flares (3)|
1) Effects from a coronal hole could reach Earth within the
next 5 days. When the high speed stream has arrived the color changes to
2) Effects from a CME are likely to be observed at Earth within 96 hours.
3) There is a possibility of either M or X class flares within the next 48 hours.
Green: 0-20% probability, Yellow: 20-60% probability, Red: 60-100% probability.
Click on image for higher resolution image) Compare to the previous day's image
When available the active region map has a coronal hole polarity overlay where red (pink) is negative and blue (blue-green) is positive.
Data for all numbered solar regions according to the Solar Region Summary provided by NOAA/SWPC. Comments are my own, as is the STAR spot count (spots observed at or inside a few hours before midnight) and data for regions not numbered by SWPC or where SWPC has observed no spots. SWPC active region numbers in the table below and in the active region map above are the historic SWPC/USAF numbers.
|Active region||Date numbered
|Spot count||Location at midnight||Area||Classification||SDO / HMI 4K continuum
image with magnetic polarity overlay
SWPC count, location, classification and area probably includes ARs S1776 and S1777
|Total spot count:||70||122||67|
|Sunspot number:||120||212||137||(total spot count + 10 * number of spotted regions)|
|Weighted penumbral SN:||105||154||99||(Sum of total spot count + classification weighting for each AR. Classification weighting: X=0, R=3, A/S=5, H/K=10)|
|Relative sunspot number (Wolf number):||72||74||75||k * (sunspot number). k = 0.6 for SWPC, k = 0.35 (changed from 0.45 on March 1, 2011) for STAR SDO 2K, k = 0.55 for STAR SDO 1K|
|Month||Average measured solar flux||International sunspot number (SIDC)||Smoothed sunspot number||Average ap
|2008.07||65.7 (SF minimum)||0.5||2.8 (-0.4)|
|2012.01||132.5||58.3||(65.0 projected, +1.6)||7.15|
|2012.02||106.5||33.1||(66.5 projected, +1.5)||8.81|
|2012.03||114.7||64.2||(67.2 projected, +0.7)||16.08|
|2012.04||113.0||55.2||(66.5 projected, -0.7)||10.10|
|2012.05||121.5||69.0||(64.8 projected, -1.7)||7.06|
|2012.06||119.6||64.5||(64.0 projected, -0.8)||10.08|
|2012.07||155.9 (1)||57.3 (2A) / 126.9 (2B)||(65.0 projected, +1.0)||(16.62)|
1) Running average based on the daily 20:00 UTC observed solar flux value at
2A) Current impact on the monthly sunspot number based on the Boulder (NOAA/SWPC) sunspot number (accumulated daily sunspots / month days). The official SIDC international sunspot number is typically 30-50% lower. 2B) Month average to date.
3) Running average based on the quicklook and definitive Potsdam WDC ap indices. Values in red are based on the definitive international Potsdam WDC ap indices.
This report has been prepared by Jan Alvestad. It is based on analysis of data from whatever sources are available at the time the report is prepared. All time references are to the UTC day. Comments and suggestions are always welcome.
SDO images are courtesy of NASA/SDO and the AIA, EVE, and HMI science teams.