Last major update issued on July 31, 2012 at 05:30 UTC.
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The geomagnetic field was quiet to active on July 30. Solar wind speed at SOHO ranged between 322 and 459 km/s under the influence of a low speed stream from CH525.
Solar flux measured at 20h UTC on 2.8 GHz was 136.0 (decreasing 9.8 over the last solar rotation). The Potsdam WDC planetary A index was 15 (STAR Ap - based on the mean of three hour interval ap indices: 14.8). Three hour interval K indices: 223334422 (planetary), 13433423 (Boulder).
The background x-ray flux is at the class B6 level.
At midnight UTC the visible solar disk had 8 spotted active regions (in 2K resolution SDO images).
Region 11528 [N16W28] developed slowly and displayed a lot of activity
in SDO/AIA imagery. Further C flares are possible.
Region 11529 [S11W22] was quiet and stable.
Region 11530 [S19W12] was quiet and stable.
Region 11532 [S21E18] lost the magnetic delta structure in the central penumbra after the M class event. There's still a minor delta in the large leading penumbra. Further M class flaring is possible. Flares: C8.8 at 14:03, M1.1 at 15:48 UTC.
Region 11533 [S29W22] was quiet and stable.
Region 11534 [N21E27] added a spot in the northern section.
New region 11535 [N18E64] rotated into view on July 29 and was numbered the next day by SWPC.
Spotted active regions not numbered or interpreted differently by NOAA/SWPC:
New region S1832 [N22E04] emerged with a tiny spot.
A region at the southeast limb has rotated partly into view early on July 31 with several spots. This region produced a C6.3 flare at 23:58 UTC. Minor M class flaring is possible.
July 29-30: No obviously Earth directed CMEs were observed in LASCO and STEREO imagery.
July 28: The partial halo CME produced by the M6 event in AR 11532 could have a minor Earth directed component.
Coronal hole history (since October
Compare today's report to the situation one solar rotation ago: 28 days ago 27 days ago 26 days ago
A recurrent trans equatorial coronal hole (CH525) was in an Earth facing position on July 25-27.
The above coronal hole map is based on a method where coronal holes are detected automatically. While the method may need some fine tuning, it has significant advantages over detecting coronal holes manually. The main improvement is the ability to detect coronal holes at and just beyond the solar limbs. Early results using this method for SDO images over a span of several weeks indicate a good match between coronal holes observed over the visible disk and their extent and position at the east and west limbs. Note that the polar coronal holes are easily detected using this method, the extent and intensity of both CHs are consistent with other data sources.
Long distance low and medium frequency (below 2 MHz) propagation along paths north of due west over high and upper middle latitudes is poor. Propagation on long distance northeast-southwest paths is fair to good.
The geomagnetic field is expected to be quiet to unsettled on July 31 due to effects from CH525. Weak effects from the July 28 CME are possible on August 1.
|Coronal holes (1)||Coronal mass ejection (2)||M and X class flares (3)|
1) Effects from a coronal hole could reach Earth within the
next 5 days. When the high speed stream has arrived the color changes to
2) Effects from a CME are likely to be observed at Earth within 96 hours.
3) There is a possibility of either M or X class flares within the next 48 hours.
Green: 0-20% probability, Yellow: 20-60% probability, Red: 60-100% probability.
Click on image for higher resolution image) Compare to the previous day's image
When available the active region map has a coronal hole polarity overlay where red (pink) is negative and blue (blue-green) is positive.
Data for all numbered solar regions according to the Solar Region Summary provided by NOAA/SWPC. Comments are my own, as is the STAR spot count (spots observed at or inside a few hours before midnight) and data for regions not numbered by SWPC or where SWPC has observed no spots. SWPC active region numbers in the table below and in the active region map above are the historic SWPC/USAF numbers.
|Active region||Date numbered
|Spot count||Location at midnight||Area||Classification||SDO / HMI 4K continuum
image with magnetic polarity overlay
|S1828||2012.07.28||S22W15||merged with AR 11530|
|11536||2012.07.30||7||S23E26||0100||DAO||part of AR 11532|
|Total spot count:||36||126||51|
|Sunspot number:||106||206||131||(total spot count + 10 * number of spotted regions)|
|Weighted penumbral SN:||71||161||86||(Sum of total spot count + classification weighting for each AR. Classification weighting: X=0, R=3, A/S=5, H/K=10)|
|Relative sunspot number (Wolf number):||64||72||72||k * (sunspot number). k = 0.6 for SWPC, k = 0.35 for STAR SDO 2K, k = 0.55 for STAR SDO 1K|
|Month||Average measured solar flux||International sunspot number (SIDC)||Smoothed sunspot number||Average ap
|2008.07||65.7 (SF minimum)||0.5||2.8 (-0.4)|
|2012.01||132.5||58.3||(65.0 projected, +1.6)||7.15|
|2012.02||106.5||33.1||(66.5 projected, +1.5)||8.81|
|2012.03||114.7||64.2||(67.2 projected, +0.7)||16.08|
|2012.04||113.0||55.2||(66.5 projected, -0.7)||10.10|
|2012.05||121.5||69.0||(64.8 projected, -1.7)||7.06|
|2012.06||119.6||64.5||(64.0 projected, -0.8)||10.08|
|2012.07||133.7 (1)||95.8 (2A) / 99.0 (2B)||(65.0 projected, +1.0)||(14.68)|
1) Running average based on the daily 20:00 UTC observed solar flux value at
2A) Current impact on the monthly sunspot number based on the Boulder (NOAA/SWPC) sunspot number (accumulated daily sunspots / month days). The official SIDC international sunspot number is typically 30-50% lower. 2B) Month average to date.
3) Running average based on the quicklook and definitive Potsdam WDC ap indices. Values in red are based on the definitive international Potsdam WDC ap indices.
This report has been prepared by Jan Alvestad. It is based on analysis of data from whatever sources are available at the time the report is prepared. All time references are to the UTC day. Comments and suggestions are always welcome.
SDO images are courtesy of NASA/SDO and the AIA, EVE, and HMI science teams.