Last major update issued on January 28, 2014 at 04:45 UTC.
[Solar and geomagnetic data - last month (updated
[Solar wind and electron fluence charts (updated daily)]
[Solar cycles 23-24 (last update January 1, 2014)] [Cycle 24 progress (last update January 1, 2014) ]
[Solar cycles 1-20]
[Graphical comparison of cycles 21, 22, 23 and 24 (last update January 1, 2014)]
[Graphical comparison of cycles 10, 12, 13, 14, 16 and 24 (last update January 1, 2014)]
[Historical solar and geomagnetic data charts 1954-2006 (last update April 5, 2007)]
[Archived reports since January 2003 (last update January 1, 2014)]
[POES auroral activity level since October
2009 - updated January 26, 2013]
[Solar polar fields vs solar cycles - updated January 11, 2014]
[Presentation 3rd SSN Workshop, Tucson, 2013 (pdf)]
The geomagnetic field was very quiet on January 27. Solar wind speed at SOHO ranged between 290 and 348 km/s.
Solar flux at 20h UTC on 2.8 GHz was 143.9 (decreasing 1.4 over the last solar rotation). The 90 day 10.7 flux at 1 AU was 146.4. The Potsdam WDC planetary A index was 2 (STAR Ap - based on the mean of three hour interval ap indices: 2.4). Three hour interval K indices: 00000001 (planetary), 11101221 (Boulder).
The background x-ray flux is at the class C1 level.
At the time of counting spots (see image time) spots were observed in 10 active regions in 2K resolution (SN: 187) and 8 active regions in 1K resolution (SN: 118) SDO images on the visible solar disk.
Region 11959 [S23W48] decayed slowly and quietly.
Region 11960 [S16W42] decayed slowly and quietly.
Region 11963 [S08W24] was quiet and stable.
Region 11964 [S17W25] was quiet and stable.
Region 11965 [S14W01] merged with AR 11966.
New region 11967 [S12E80] rotated further into view. This is a large and complex region capable of producing major flares, even X class flares. C5+ flares: M1.0 at 01:22, M1.1 at 02:11, C8.0 at 19:27, C5.3 at 20:55, M4.9 at 22:10 UTC.
New region 11968 [N10E79] rotated partly into view. C and M class flaring is likely. C5+ flare: C6.0 at 08:23 UTC.
Spotted regions not numbered (or interpreted differently) by SWPC:
S3029 [S23W66] was quiet and stable.
S3038 [N01W52] reemerged with a penumbra spot.
S3065 [S13W33] ewas quiet and stable.
January 25-27: No obviously Earth directed CMEs were observed in LASCO and STEREO imagery.
Coronal hole history (since October
Compare today's report to the situation one solar rotation ago: 28 days ago 27 days ago 26 days ago
A small northern hemisphere coronal hole (CH601) was in an Earth facing position on January 25.
Long distance low and medium frequency (below 2 MHz) propagation along paths north of due west over upper middle latitudes is fair. Propagation on long distance northeast-southwest paths is poor.
The geomagnetic field is expected to be quiet on January 28-30 with a chance of a few unsettled intervals on January 28-29 should a stream from CH601 reach Earth.
|Coronal holes (1)||Coronal mass ejection (2)||M and X class flares (3)|
1) Effects from a coronal hole could reach Earth within the
next 5 days. When the high speed stream has arrived the color changes to
2) Effects from a CME are likely to be observed at Earth within 96 hours.
3) There is a possibility of either M or X class flares within the next 48 hours.
Green: 0-20% probability, Yellow: 20-60% probability, Red: 60-100% probability.
(Click on image for 2K resolution) Compare to the previous day's image. 0.5K image
When available the active region map has a coronal hole polarity overlay where red (pink) is negative and blue is positive.
Data for all numbered solar regions according to the Solar Region Summary provided by NOAA/SWPC. Comments are my own, as is the STAR spot count (spots observed at or inside a few hours before midnight) and data for regions not numbered by SWPC or where SWPC has observed no spots. SWPC active region numbers in the table below and in the active region map above are the historic SWPC/USAF numbers.
|Active region||Date numbered
|Spot count||Location at midnight||Area||Classification||SDO / HMI 4K continuum
image with magnetic polarity overlay
rotated out of view
merged with AR 11966
|11966||2014.01.25||S12W01||merged with AR 11965|
|Total spot count:||12||87||38|
|Sunspot number:||62||187||118||(total spot count + 10 * number of spotted regions)|
|Weighted SN:||32||117||68||(Sum of total spot count + classification weighting for each AR. Classification weighting: X=0, R=3, A/S=5, H/K=10)|
|Relative sunspot number (Wolf number):||37||65||65||k * (sunspot number). k = 0.6 for SWPC, k = 0.35 for STAR SDO 2K, k = 0.55 for STAR SDO 1K|
|Month||Average measured solar flux||International sunspot number (SIDC)||Smoothed sunspot number||Average ap
|2011.11||153.5 (cycle peak)||96.7 (cycle peak)||61.1 (+1.2)||5.55|
possible cycle 24 max
|2013.07||115.5||57.0||(65.4 projected, +2.8)||9.47|
|2013.08||114.6||66.0||(67.8 projected, +2.4)||8.27|
|2013.09||102.6||36.9||(70.1 projected, +2.3)||5.23|
|2013.10||132.1||85.6||(70.0 projected, -0.1)||7.71|
|2013.11||148.3||77.6||(68.1 projected, -1.9)||5.68|
|2013.12||147.7||90.3||(67.4 projected, -0.7)||4.68|
|2014.01||157.0 (1)||113.5 (2A) / 130.3 (2B) / 105.1 (2C)||(67.6 projected, +0.2)||(5.7)|
1) Running average based on the daily 20:00 UTC observed solar flux value at
2A) Current impact on the monthly sunspot number based on the Boulder (NOAA/SWPC) sunspot number (accumulated daily sunspots / month days). The official SIDC international sunspot number is typically 30-50% lower. 2B) Boulder SN current month average to date. 2C) STAR SDO 1K Wolf number 30 day average.
3) Running average based on the quicklook and definitive Potsdam WDC ap indices. Values in red are based on the definitive international Potsdam WDC ap indices.
This report has been prepared by Jan Alvestad. It is based on the analysis of data from whatever sources are available at the time the report is prepared. All time references are to the UTC day. Comments and suggestions are always welcome.
SDO images are courtesy of NASA/SDO and the AIA, EVE, and HMI science teams.